Farmers

Agricultural workers and farmers work on farms to produce crops, livestock and dairy products. Farmers are at risk of exposure to asbestos through soil, vermiculite and products on farming equipment and machinery.

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This page features: 11 cited research articles

While the work that farmers do today is different from the work performed during the height of asbestos use in the mid-20th century, asbestos exposure remains a risk to farm workers.

The farming industry has changed a lot thanks to advances in technology. Farmers today produce twice as much food as their parents did using less land, water and energy.

Much of the equipment and machinery used on farms is known to contain asbestos products. Older farm buildings — including farmhouses, barns, silos, pens and sheds — are highly likely to contain asbestos construction materials.

Farmers may also be exposed to asbestos in contaminated vermiculite products or contaminated soil in areas of naturally occurring asbestos.

According to a 1998 study on respiratory health hazards in agriculture, asbestos has long been a documented respiratory hazard to farmers. As early as 1967, researchers were investigating high rates of asbestosis among agricultural workers.

Farmer Fast Facts:
  • National Employment, 2016: 1,028,700
  • Similar Occupations: Ranchers, Agricultural Workers or Managers, Animal Care Workers, Equipment Operators
  • Previously Exposed: Yes
  • Still Being Exposed: Yes
  • Asbestos-Related Disease Risk: Low
  • States with Highest Employment: California, Texas, Illinois, Idaho and Iowa

Asbestos in Farming Equipment and Machinery

The following asbestos-containing products were commonly found on farming equipment or machinery:

  • Gaskets
  • Brakes
  • Clutches
  • Under spray
  • Seals
  • Insulation panels
  • Hood liners

Additionally, asbestos cement pipes were commonly used as field drains.

Farmers who replace brake linings on tractors are especially at risk of potentially harmful asbestos exposure. Dust-free, wet methods of brake replacement are recommended to limit exposure. Make sure to purchase asbestos-free brake lining replacements, which tend to cost more than traditional brake linings.

Asbestos in Farm Buildings

Most farms in the U.S. are likely to contain asbestos building materials.

Examples of asbestos-containing materials in farm buildings include:

  • Roof sheets
  • Siding
  • Building partitions
  • Wallboards
  • Insulation materials
  • Spray-on coatings
  • Gutters
  • Exhaust pipes

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires farmers to notify local agencies if they plan to renovate or demolish buildings on a farm that contains a certain threshold of asbestos. The EPA also requires specific safe practices for asbestos removal and disposal.

Farmers are also required to inform farm workers of areas that contain asbestos so workers can take precautions to avoid exposure.

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Asbestos-Contaminated Vermiculite

Vermiculite is a natural mineral that has been used in a variety of products such as brake linings, fireproofing materials and potting soils.

An asbestos-contaminated vermiculite mine in Libby, Montana, is reported to have produced 80 percent of the world’s supply of vermiculite when it operated from the 1920s through 1990.

A 1963 study of the Libby vermiculite found it contained 6.2 percent to 22.5 percent tremolite asbestos. It also contains other fibrous asbestiform minerals including winchite and richterite.

This contaminated vermiculite was used by farmers throughout the U.S. for agricultural and horticultural purposes, including:

  • Animal feed
  • Fertilizer
  • Pesticides
  • Seed encapsulation
  • Soil conditioner
  • Potting mix
  • Root cuttings
  • Seed germination
  • Sowing composts

A 1984 study of workers in an Ohio fertilizer plant using Libby vermiculite found an increased incidence of pulmonary changes typically caused by asbestos exposure including pleural plaques, pleural thickening and pleural effusion.

Samples of work areas in the plant revealed tremolite asbestos fibers. Farmers who used Libby vermiculite are also at risk of developing asbestos-related diseases.

Asbestos in Soil

Farmers may also be exposed to asbestos in the soil of their fields. Asbestos in soil may occur naturally, or it may have been added to the soil as a vermiculite-based fertilizer or conditioning agent.

Farms located near naturally occurring asbestos deposits may have the toxic mineral in their soil.

  • A 2005 study reported residential proximity to naturally occurring asbestos in soil and rocks in California is directly related to an increased incidence of mesothelioma in farmers. The closer a farm or residence is to naturally occurring asbestos, the higher the risk of developing mesothelioma.

    For example, a town northeast from Sacramento, California, called El Dorado Hills is being monitored by the EPA for its naturally occurring asbestos. Farms in and around the town may contain elevated levels of asbestos in the soil.

  • Farms located in southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona are within an area of naturally occurring asbestos. Winds have transported asbestos throughout the region, leading to exposure in urban and rural settings.

  • A case report of a man with pleural mesothelioma documented that his exposure took place on the farm where he grew up in Mexico. His exposure was to erionite, a mineral that is nearly identical to asbestos, occurring naturally in the soil on his family farm.

    The farm was located along an erionite-rich region that stretches from northern Mexico up into the Sierra Nevada mountain range. This region also contains naturally occurring asbestos deposits including actinolite asbestos. Other asbestiform minerals in the region include winchite and richterite. Scientific studies have documented higher-than-normal rates of mesothelioma in this region.

  • Farmers in the Basilicata region of southern Italy have higher rates of mesothelioma because of exposure to tremolite asbestos in the soil. A 2012 study showed agricultural activities increased exposure to asbestos fibers from the natural limit of two fibers per liter of air to 23.6 fibers per liter.

The overall risk of asbestos exposure to the majority of farmers is relatively low. However, farmers who unknowingly work on lands contaminated with asbestos fibers may face a moderate to high risk of exposure.

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Writer

Joining the team in February 2008 as a writer and editor, Michelle Whitmer has translated medical jargon into patient-friendly information at Asbestos.com for more than eight years. Michelle is a registered yoga teacher, a member of the Academy of Integrative Health & Medicine, and was quoted by The New York Times on the risks of asbestos exposure.

Matt Mauney, Content Writer at Asbestos.com
Edited by

20 Cited Article Sources

  1. Dodson, R. and Hammar, S. Asbestos: Risk Assessment, Epidemiology, and Health Effects. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis, 2011.
  2. Massaro, T. et al. (2012). Asbestos and agriculture: new perspectives of risk.
    Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23405722
  3. EPA. (n.d.). Laws and Regulations that Apply to Your Agricultural Operation by Farm Activity.
    Retrieved from: https://www.epa.gov/agriculture/laws-and-regulations-apply-your-agricultural-operation-farm-activity
  4. HSE. (n.d.). Building work.
    Retrieved from: http://www.hse.gov.uk/agriculture/topics/building.htm
  5. AIC. (n.d.). Working with Asbestos.
    Retrieved from: https://www.aic.org.uk/working-with-asbestos/
  6. Farmers Weekly. (n.d.). Q&A: Rules on handling asbestos on farm explained.
    Retrieved from: https://www.fwi.co.uk/livestock/q-and-a-rules-on-handling-asbestos-on-farm-explained
  7. Lockey, J.E. et al. (1984). Pulmonary Changes after Exposure to Vermiculite Contaminated with Fibrous Tremolite.
    Retrieved from: https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1164/arrd.1984.129.6.952
  8. Montana Department of Environmental Quality. (n.d.). W.R. Grace File Review Summary: Chronological Order of Events (CVID #3726).
    Retrieved from: http://deq.mt.gov/DEQAdmin/dir/libby/wrgracetimeline3113099
  9. HSE. (2017). Farmwise: Your essential guide to health and safety in agriculture.
    Retrieved from: http://www.hse.gov.uk/pUbns/priced/hsg270.pdf
  10. Oczypok, E.A. et al. (2016). Case Report: Erionite-associated malignant pleural mesothelioma in Mexico.
    Retrieved from: http://www.ijcep.com/files/ijcep0027993.pdf
  11. Baumann, F. (2015). The Presence of Asbestos in the Natural Environment is Likely Related to Mesothelioma in Young Individuals and Women from Southern Nevada. 32383-2/fulltext
    Retrieved from: https://www.jto.org/article/S1556-0864(15)
  12. Pan, X. et al. (2015). Residential Proximity to Naturally Occurring Asbestos and Mesothelioma Risk in California.
    Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2718408/
  13. Zolov, C., Bourilkov, T., & Babadjov L. (1967). Pleural asbestosis in agricultural workers. 90019-9
    Retrieved from: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0013-9351(67)
  14. Goldberg, M. & Luce, D. (2012). The health impact of non-occupational exposure to asbestos: What do we know?
    Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3499908/
  15. Buck, B.J. et al. (2015). Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Southern Nevada Region: Potential for Human Exposure.
    Retrieved from: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51U..05B
  16. Buck, B.J. et al. (2013). Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Southern Nevada Region: Potential for Human Exposure, Southern Nevada, USA.
    Retrieved from: https://go.unlv.edu/sites/default/files/50/Sciences-AsbestosResearch-SSAJ-77-6-2192.pdf
  17. EPA. (n.d.). Naturally Occurring Asbestos: El Dorado Hills.
    Retrieved from: https://archive.epa.gov/region9/toxic/web/html/index-4.html
  18. BLS. (2018, April 13). Farmers, Ranchers, and Other Agricultural Managers.
    Retrieved from: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/management/farmers-ranchers-and-other-agricultural-managers.htm
  19. Bertone, R. (2012, February 22). Farm Facts: The United States Farmer.
    Retrieved from: https://www.farmflavor.com/at-home/cooking/farm-facts-the-united-states-farmer/
  20. American Thoracic Society. (1998). Respiratory Health Hazards in Agriculture. Retrieved from: https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/full/10.1164/ajrccm.158.supplement_1.rccm1585s1
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Last Modified February 8, 2019

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