In stage 4, pleural mesothelioma tumors have spread into the chest wall, bones, lining of the heart, abdomen, liver or the opposite lung. Lymph nodes on the other side of the chest or above the collarbone may also be affected. The median life expectancy for stage 4 mesothelioma is about 12 months.
By stage 4, malignant mesothelioma tumors have metastasized, or spread beyond the point of origin to other parts of the body. The cancer may have spread to lymph nodes and several organs of the body, including the brain, prostate, spine and the lining of the heart.
Stage 4 mesothelioma is commonly expressed with Roman numerals as stage IV. It is the most advanced stage and most difficult to treat because the few treatment options available cannot remove all tumors. Many patients are also too weak to withstand aggressive surgeries.
Three systems are commonly used to define stages of pleural mesothelioma (Bringham, TNM and Butchart). They categorize stage 4 on similar characteristics and behaviors. Butchart and TNM note that the cancer has metastasized to distant organs. Brigham designates that surgery is not a viable option.
Although stage 4 mesothelioma is considered terminal, continued advancements in palliative care can help you live longer and have a better quality of life. Some stage 4 patients continue to defy the odds, living years after their initial mesothelioma prognosis.
Your outlook depends largely on the extent of tumor growth and how well you respond to treatments.
At stage 4, also known as end-stage mesothelioma, common symptoms such as breathlessness and coughing are more severe. Because tumors have spread beyond the lungs, symptoms are not isolated to the chest cavity.
Some patients also suffer from cachexia. It is a syndrome involving weight loss, muscle atrophy, weakness and appetite loss. Stage 4 cancer sometimes causes blood problems such as high platelet count (thrombocytosis) and low red blood cell count (anemia).
Although no curative treatment exists for any stage of mesothelioma, treatment options that aim to extend survival are the most limited at stage 4.
Extensive tumor-removing surgeries, such as a pleurectomy/decortication (P/D) or extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP), are typically not an option. Palliative treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy, can slow tumor growth and reduce tumor size.
While the spread of tumors is usually too vast at stage 4 for doctors to remove all growths, some patients can benefit from less extensive surgical procedures. Surgeons can attempt to remove as much tumor mass as possible. They can also target only problematic tumors so patients breathe more comfortably and experience less pain.
Less invasive, palliative surgeries that can relieve pain and reduce symptoms include:
Thoracentesis: Drains fluid from the chest
Paracentesis: Drains fluid from the abdomen
Pericardiocentesis: Drains fluid from around the heart
Pleurodesis: Potential long-term solution to fluid buildup in the chest
Chemotherapy is one of the most common treatment options for stage 4 mesothelioma. Chemotherapy drugs slow tumor growth and may shrink tumors in some cases. This helps to alleviate symptoms and extend survival. Wayne State University researchers in 2016 found chemotherapy more than doubles life expectancy for malignant mesothelioma patients, including those in stage 4. Combining chemotherapy with surgery extended survival even longer.
The most commonly prescribed chemotherapy regimen for pleural mesothelioma is cisplatin or carboplatin combined with pemetrexed (Alimta).
Doctors don’t always treat stage 4 mesothelioma with radiation therapy. They may recommend the procedure depending on your tumor growth and overall health. Radiation therapy at this stage might be able to reduce the size of tumors. This can lessen chest pressure, decrease pain and improve breathing.
Certain stage 4 mesothelioma patients may qualify for clinical trials. Some clinical trials investigate the value of various treatment combinations for late-stage mesothelioma. In some cases, experimental treatments can help stage 4 patients survive far past their prognosis. These include immunotherapy, gene therapy and other emerging therapies.
A 2016 study published in The Annals of Thoracic Surgery showed photodynamic therapy may improve late-stage mesothelioma survival. A subset of patients with pleura mesothelioma lived an average of 7.3 years compared to the usual one-year prognosis.
Supportive or palliative care helps to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life. At stage 4, doctors may recommend pain medication, oxygen therapy and respiratory therapies. These treatments control pain and improve lung function.
Many long-term mesothelioma survivors have incorporated complementary and alternative medicine therapies into their treatment plan. Certain complementary therapies may improve survival, ease symptoms, reduce treatment side effects and enhance quality of life. These treatments include herbal medicine and holistic therapies, mind-body therapies (yoga, qigong and tai chi) and nutritional therapy.
A mesothelioma specialist can help patients diagnosed with stage 4 determine the best treatment plan possible.FIND A SPECIALIST NEAR YOU
Stage 4 typically refers to pleural mesothelioma, the most common type of the asbestos-related cancer.
There is no official stage 4 for peritoneal mesothelioma, which accounts for roughly 20 percent of all cases. It is generally accepted that peritoneal patients with extensive tumor spreading are classified as stage 4.
By this point, the cancerous tissue is more extensive and tumors have spread outside of the peritoneum. The peritoneum is the protective lining of the abdomen where the cancer initially develops.
Like pleural mesothelioma, surgery is usually not an option at this phase. This includes heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). HIPEC is a promising peritoneal treatment that combines surgery and heated chemotherapy.
Pericardial mesothelioma is a rare form of the cancer which develops on the lining of the heart. It is typically diagnosed in the later stages, although it may not be defined as stage 4.
At stage 4, the cancer is likely to continue to spread, which can lead to respiratory failure or heart failure if tumors spread to the heart. The median survival rate for stage 4 mesothelioma is about 12 months.
A positive response to treatment can extend survival. Patients with good prognostic factors often live longer than average. Prognostic factors associated with better survival include having the epithelioid cell type, being in good overall health, younger in age, female and having no signs of blood disorders.
“A stage 4 mesothelioma diagnosis doesn’t mean there is no hope or options. It’s important to connect with a medical oncologist that is experienced with mesothelioma to understand your treatment options. Remember, you are the decision maker. Your specialist is there to give you guidance.”
Mesothelioma is considered a heterogeneous cancer, meaning no two cases are the same. For this reason, survival statistics cannot predict how long someone with mesothelioma will live. Some people have particularly slow-developing mesothelioma, and some respond surprisingly well to treatment.
Although stage 4 is the most advanced of the mesothelioma stages, some patients, especially those in good overall health, live far beyond their life expectancy. Through a variety of treatments, groundbreaking clinical trials and healthy life choices, you may beat the odds and become a survivor. Consider the following:
Get a second opinion from a mesothelioma specialist.
Find financial assistance available to offset potential financial burden.
Enroll in a clinical trial. Consult with your doctor to determine if you are eligible.
Try alternative and complementary treatment options.
Exercise and maintain a healthy diet to improve mood and quality of life.
Join a support group to connect with others coping with mesothelioma.
Make time for hobbies and activities that bring you joy.
Read stories about other mesothelioma survivors for hope and inspiration.
A stage 4 mesothelioma diagnosis can be devastating, but it doesn’t mean it’s an immediate death sentence. A positive outlook will do wonders when combined with a variety of treatments.
Karen Selby joined Asbestos.com in 2009. She is a registered nurse with a background in oncology and thoracic surgery and was the director of a tissue bank before becoming a Patient Advocate at The Mesothelioma Center. Karen has assisted surgeons with thoracic surgeries such as lung resections, lung transplants, pneumonectomies, pleurectomies and wedge resections. She is also a member of the Academy of Oncology Nurse & Patient Navigators. Read More
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