Mesothelioma Surgery

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Surgery is a valuable treatment option for patients with an asbestos-related disease. Choosing what type of mesothelioma surgery to have is up to you and your specialist. Potentially curative surgeries require an experienced mesothelioma surgeon, palliative surgeries are less-invasive and help relieve pain, and diagnostic surgeries are the third option, they're for when you and your specialist need to find out more about your particular disease.

Surgery can be an optimal approach to treating mesothelioma, particularly if it is part of an aggressive, multi-modal strategy that includes chemotherapy and radiation. You can live for many years after surgery if your cancer has not metastasized and an experienced surgeon is able to remove all visible signs of the disease. Some of the most common and potentially curative surgical procedures for mesothelioma are Extrapleural Pneumonectomy (EPP), Pleurectomy/Decortication (P/D), Cytoreduction with HIPEC.

Before discussing surgery as an option, doctors will want to make sure your body is strong enough to recover, so they will determine your lung and heart health by conducting a pulmonary function test and running cardiac tests, such as an electrocardiogram (EKG), a stress test, an angiogram or an echocardiogram.

If your doctor believes you are a candidate for surgery – that is, your overall health is strong enough to withstand potential complications and your mesothelioma has not spread too far – then it is something to consider. There are risks, but successful surgery also comes with curative potential.

There are many examples of mesothelioma survivors on our website. Many of the people on our Wall of Hope opted for surgeries that gave them more years to spend with children and grandchildren. Some procedures were more aggressive than others.

Three Surgery Categories

Sometimes curative surgery is not an option, but other procedures are. Surgeries generally fall into three categories: potentially curative, palliative and diagnostic.

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Potentially Curative

Major surgery can be life changing. This type of surgery removes tumors and extends life expectancy.

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Palliative

Palliative surgery is to improve quality of life by easing a patient's pain or alleviating symptoms.

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Diagnostic

The most basic of procedures. It gives patients and doctors a better idea of disease progression.

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Potentially Curative Surgery

Although mesothelioma has no definitive cure, doctors use two types of surgeries for pleural mesothelioma and one for peritoneal mesothelioma that provide the closest form of curative treatment.

Surgeons perform all three as part of a multimodal approach to therapy.

Extrapleural Pneumonectomy (EPP) and Pleurectomy/Decortication (P/D) are performed on pleural mesothelioma patients. Cytoreductive surgery followed by Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) is an option for someone with peritoneal mesothelioma.

Extrapleural Pneumonectomy

Extrapleural Pneumonectomy Survival Chart

EPP is an aggressive surgery that involves the removal of an entire lung, the lining around it, parts of the pericardium and diaphragm, and the lymph nodes nearby. Theoretically, it offers the best chance to remove all of the cancer cells.

Pleurectomy Decortication

Pleurectomy Decortication Survival Chart

P/D is less life-changing but has shown equally effective results. It leaves the lung intact, but is considerably more detailed and takes even longer to complete. It removes the pleural lining surrounding the lungs, and all visible tumors.

Debulking Surgery for Peritoneal

Cytoreductive surgery is often referred to as debulking surgery, and it involves removing as much of the cancerous growth as possible from inside the abdominal cavity, including removal of parts of the liver, pancreas, spleen, gall bladder, bowels and stomach.

Like the pleurectomy/decortication, it is detailed surgery that can take several hours to complete. Doctors usually perform the HIPEC procedure, which is a process of heating chemotherapy drugs and delivering them directly to the abdomen, after cytoreductive surgery.

Robotic Surgery Is Newest Technique

Mesothelioma Surgery

Robotic surgery is the newest way for thoracic surgeons to conduct cancer surgeries. They have used the more precise surgery for a decade, typically for minimally invasive procedures, but since about 2006 they began using it for chest cancer surgeries. Dr. Farid Gharagozloo of the University of Arizona Cancer Center performed the first robotic EPP in 2013, and he said it can change the future of mesothelioma treatment. "It's a better pair of scissors," Gharagozloo said.

The da Vinci Surgical System Robot does the hard work and allows for more precise movement, a more magnified view and better maneuverability during the operation. Surgeons do their work on a computer board, which guides tiny instruments that are attached to a robotic arm. Robotic surgery shortens recovery time because it dramatically reduces blood loss. It also reduces the stress on the remaining lung, which is often a major problem when the surgery is done conventionally.

Talk to a Doctor About Your Diagnosis

We can connect you with a top mesothelioma doctor to find out if surgery is the best treatment option for you.

Palliative Surgery

Palliative surgery is designed for mesothelioma patients who opt against the more aggressive, potentially curative options or when those options are no longer available because the cancer already has spread or because the patient is not healthy enough to withstand the strains of major surgery. It is considerably less invasive.

The goal of palliative surgery is to improve your quality of life. That gets accomplished by relieving you of as many symptoms as possible and by providing you pain relief. There is no pretense of a cure, but palliative procedures can prolong your life and make your cancer a little more tolerable. Many of these surgeries involve the removal of fluids.

  • Pleurodesis

    Pleurodesis is a procedure that is done in an attempt to prevent fluid buildup in the chest. A hollow tube is inserted into the chest wall to drain the fluid, and it also is used to insert substances that can help a patient. It can be used for talc powder, an antibiotic, or a chemotherapy drug like bleomycin.

    Learn more about pleurodesis
  • Paracentesis

    Paracentesis is another surgical procedure that can remove fluid buildup from the abdominal cavity for patients with peritoneal mesothelioma. It can help alleviate symptoms that include stomach pain and breathing difficulties.

    Learn more about paracentesis
  • Thoracotomy

    Surgeons perform a thoracotomy to access the lungs, heart, aorta, trachea or diaphragm. For someone with mesothelioma or asbestos-lung cancer, this could include a wedge resection, a lobectomy, or a pneumonectomy.

    Learn more about thoracotomy
  • Wedge resection

    Also known as a segmentectomy, a wedge resection is the least invasive of these procedures and is often used when the cancer is confined to a single area. The surgeon will leave much of the lung intact, removing only a small section that often is wedge shaped.

  • Lobectomy

    This involves the removal of at least one of the five lobes that are in the lungs. It is a more extensive procedure than the wedge resection, and often used if the cancer is confined to a single lobe.

  • Pneumonectomy

    This is the most extensive surgery of the three thoracotomies because it involves removing a lung. The procedure usually includes the removal of the lining around the lung. A patient may opt for this surgery if cancer hasn't spread beyond one lung.

    Learn more about pneumonectomy

Other Surgeries

Shunt Placement involves implanting a device that moves the fluid within the body from one part to another with the hope that is more likely absorbed and less likely to cause problems for the patient.

Catheter Placement is sometimes used to control the fluid buildup. A tube is placed in either the abdomen or chest through a small incision. One end is left outside the body, allowing the fluid to drain regularly without the need of a doctor's visit.

Compensation for Mesothelioma Victims

Get help accessing trust funds and other forms of compensation available to mesothelioma victims.

Diagnostic Surgery

Scientist Analyzing Biopsied Cells

Biopsies and fine needle aspirations are the most common types.

Diagnostic surgery is used to confirm the presence – and whereabouts -- of cancer. This is typically accomplished with a biopsy, which is the removal of tissue from inside the body to determine if cancer is present. Some of the more common biopsies include fine needle aspiration, incisional/core biopsy and excisional biopsy.

Fine needle aspiration biopsies use a hollow needle to gather sample cells for testing. Results from this biopsy are available within a few minutes. Incisional/core biopsies only remove a small section of suspicious tissue for further evaluation. An excisional biopsy involves the removal of an entire tumor or organ for diagnosis.

Typical biopsies for patients with lung conditions include thoracentesis and thoracoscopy, which can be used to diagnose patients who are suspected to have pleural mesothelioma or another lung condition.

A thoracentesis is used to diagnose patients who are suspected to have pleural mesothelioma. The procedure may also be used as a palliative treatment for patients who are experiencing excess fluid in the lungs. Such fluid is removed by inserting a hollow needle into the lungs. The fluid is then analyzed for the presence of disease.

During a thoracoscopy, a doctor makes an incision in the chest. A long, thin tube is inserted into the tissue surrounding the lungs, called the pleura. The doctor probes the pleura and takes samples of suspected mesothelioma cancer cells for testing.

Side Effects of Mesothelioma Surgeries

Dr. Fontaine explains the complications with mesothelioma surgery.

The most common side effects of mesothelioma surgeries are pain, swelling or infection at the incision site.

Whenever a foreign object such as a needle, knife or tube is placed into the body, swelling and drainage usually occur. In fact, open drainage is recommended during the healing process.

Mild swelling, draining and bruising of the injured tissues are typical and will usually resolve themselves on their own within a few days or weeks.

If any of these symptoms occur in excess, you should contact your doctor. Excessive inflammation or foul-smelling drainage at the surgery site may be a sign of infection. Other signs of infection include redness and a warm or tingling sensation. Postoperative infection should be controlled under a doctor's care, but it is imperative to report it immediately to prevent the infection from becoming fatal.

  • Bleeding: Most patients will experience minimal bleeding that poses no threat to overall health, and the body will be able to regenerate any blood that has been lost. During recovery, over-stretching or otherwise damaging the incision area can result in bleeding. If bleeding becomes extensive, seek immediate medical attention.
  • Fatigue: Even after any anesthesia wears off, patients may still feel fatigued from the basic bodily stress that occurs with an invasive procedure, especially a major operation such as EPP or P/D. The fatigue may be intensified if the patient does not eat enough food or get enough rest to restore the body's energy levels.
  • Cardiac Complications: Mesothelioma surgeries performed in the chest cavity pose the risk of causing cardiac complications. The most common risk is atrial fibrillation or cardiac arrhythmia (irregular or abnormal heart beat).

Less radical surgeries, such as a pleurodesis or thoracotomy, are typically associated with minor side effects.

Managing Pain After Mesothelioma Surgery

Discomfort after mesothelioma surgery may be dull and tingling or more intense. For some patients, the pain will occur when they stand, sit, walk or try to perform daily activities. But for others, the pain may occur even at rest.

Your surgeon can help you develop a pain management plan to cope with the discomfort you might experience after surgery. Before you leave the hospital, your doctor will most likely provide prescriptions for general nerve blockers or oral pain relievers. These can include prescriptions for narcotics like morphine for severe pain or Vicodin for moderate pain.

Over-the counter (OTC) medications, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil) or naproxen (Aleve), may be recommended to relieve mild pain.

Any OTC medications should not be taken after surgery without specific instructions from your doctor.

Mesothelioma Surgeons

Research shows – and mesothelioma specialists agree – that surgery is the best first option for living longer with this disease. Sometimes the options are clear-cut, sometimes they're not. But it is hard to understate how surgery can prolong your life.

A mesothelioma specialist can assess each individual patient and explain what procedures make the most sense for your individual circumstance. They will take into account several factors, including the stage of the disease and the overall health of the patient.

One of the most important decisions you can make will be the selection of a doctor and treatment center. This is a very intricate and rare cancer, which requires a specialist who is comfortable with treating it. Our Doctor Match Program helps patients find top mesothelioma specialists and helps get appointments for patients.

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Additional Resources

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Karen Selby is a registered nurse and a Patient Advocate at The Mesothelioma Center. She worked in several subspecialties within nursing before joining Asbestos.com in 2009.

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