Adequate nutrition is important for people with cancer. Cancer patients often lose essential muscle and tissue after diagnosis, and this weight loss can negatively impact their prognosis. Some changes to your diet might help you feel better during and after cancer treatment. Begin with a balanced, healthy diet. A balanced diet can help you feel better, maintain weight and energy, fight off infection and recover more quickly. It could also help you cope with certain side effects of cancer treatment.
The diversity of available nutritional advice can leave patients’ heads spinning. People with mesothelioma can turn to registered dietitians for help. A dietitian can relieve patients of the stress associated with searching through the bounty of information available on cancer and diet.
In the past, people turned to the Food Guide Pyramid for advice on a balanced diet. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) retired the Food Guide Pyramid years ago and replaced it with My Plate. This can be found at ChooseMyPlate.gov.
In addition, faculty members at the Harvard School of Public Health created the Healthy Eating Plate. It contains guidelines on what composes a healthy diet with a visual of what portions should look like on your plate.
The effects of cancer and treatment can make it difficult to eat. It may become challenging to follow the Healthy Eating Plate guidelines. You may have to alter what you eat and how you eat to get adequate nutrition during this time. In some cases supplementation might be recommended.
Your doctor or dietitian will let you know if you need to use nutritional supplements. Most supplements should be avoided during cancer treatment, as certain supplements can interfere with the effectiveness of treatments. If you want to take a particular supplement, ask your oncologist first.
Maintaining proper nutrition during treatment and recovery often involves effort from both the patient and the caregiver. Meal planning can alleviate some of the stress associated with food shopping and meal prepping.
When food shopping, stock up on the patient's favorite foods (as well as all foods important to their nutritional needs) to reduce the need to shop often. Talk with a doctor or dietitian about meal plans and a grocery list. Prepare meals in advance, and freeze them in meal-size portions that are easy to heat up.
Eat multiple small meals throughout the day instead of three large ones.
Snack whenever you are hungry, even if it is not mealtime, and enjoy the foods that appeal at the time.
Drink liquids after meals or as snacks – not before or during mealtime. Liquid can fill you up before you have had the chance to consume the whole, nutrient-dense foods on your plate.
Include a portion of protein like poultry, fish, eggs, beans or peanut butter at each meal.
Juice fresh fruits and vegetables to obtain their nutrients without filling up.
Consume your favorite foods any time of day. If you love breakfast foods, it's OK to eat them for lunch or dinner.
Create a joyful or relaxing setting by enjoying your food in the company of friends or family.
If you don't own a juicer, you can create juice with a blender and cheesecloth. Blend fruit or vegetables with filtered water, then strain with a cheesecloth. Cheesecloth is reusable and available at most grocery stores.
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Treatment can affect your ability to eat as you normally do. You can take proactive measures to meet nutritional needs during treatment. Many of the tips above help people with cancer consume adequate nutrition during treatment; and the tips below can help you to cope with certain side effects of therapies.
Different treatments can impact your ability to eat.
Certain surgeries can complicate eating. Some peritoneal mesothelioma patients may receive nutrition intravenously for a short period of time after abdominal surgery.
If you are underweight, you may need to gain weight before surgery. A healthy weight prior to surgery may help you heal wounds, fight infection and recover better.
Chemotherapy targets cancerous cells, which divide rapidly. As a result, other cells that divide fast are killed by chemotherapy, including cells in the mouth, hair follicles and digestive tract. This means that chewing and digestion are affected by chemotherapy.
For example, mouth sores caused by chemotherapy can make chewing difficult. Opting for cold, soft foods that require minimal to no chewing can help you eat if mouth sores develop. Chemotherapy can also induce nausea, decrease appetite or change the way food tastes. Alterations to your diet and eating habits can help you cope with these side effects.
Receiving radiation therapy around the chest can impact swallowing. It is rare for peritoneal mesothelioma patients to receive radiation around the abdomen, but this can cause digestive issues like nausea, vomiting, cramps, bloating and diarrhea.
Consuming flax seeds may protect the lungs from the toxic effects of radiation. A study by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania found that lung cancer patients who consume flax seed during chemoradiation (the combination of chemotherapy and radiation) could tolerate higher levels of radiation without damage to the lungs. Researchers suspect the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of flax seed contribute to this effect.
Certain pain medications can decrease appetite, cause nausea and lead to constipation. Tailoring what you eat and how you eat can help. Increasing fiber and water intake can especially help with constipation. Make sure to drink plenty of water when increasing fiber; otherwise constipation may worsen.
|Treatment Side Effect||Dietary Recommendations|
|Dry Mouth||Consume foods with high water content such as fruits, popsicles, gelatin and milkshakes. Avoid dry, salty foods such as crackers and pretzels.|
|Dehydration||Consume foods with high water content; avoid alcohol and caffeine. Increase fluid intake to 8-12 glasses per day.|
|Diarrhea||Avoid greasy, fatty or fried foods, raw vegetables, strong spices, alcohol and caffeine.|
|Constipation||Consume foods with high amounts of soluble fiber such as bananas, potatoes and oatmeal. The probiotics found in yogurt may also be beneficial.|
|Nausea||Bland foods such as rice and toast can help absorb stomach acid. Avoid strong-smelling foods.|
|Vomiting||Avoid fried or sugary foods, as well as spicy foods.|
|Fatigue||Increase overall caloric intake to supply the body with more energy.|
|Loss of Appetite||Consider nutritional drinks such as Ensure or Boost. Eat small meals every two to three hours, and enjoy the foods that appeal to you. Keep high-calorie snacks such as nuts and cheese on hand.|
|Weight Loss||Work with your treatment team to maintain a healthy weight after diagnosis. Many hospitals and cancer centers can connect you with a nutritionist or dietitian who can help you set and meet healthy weight goals.|
|Mouth Sores||Avoid eating spicy foods or foods that require chewing. Instead, soft and bland foods like mashed potatoes, milkshakes, smoothies and ice cream will be easier to consume.|
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If you're recovering from cancer treatment, altering your diet and receiving the proper nutrition can significantly help the recovery process. There are often side effects associated with treatments, and some foods and herbs can relieve pain. A balanced diet can ensure that you are receiving the vitamins and minerals necessary to remain healthy and aid recovery. The inclusion of certain foods might boost recovery.
The tannins and antioxidants contained in green tea may help slow or prevent the spread of cancer cells. Additionally, the oils found in fish contain EPA and DHA, two substances that help reduce inflammation in the body.
Pay attention to the following foods, which may help with recovery:
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