These laborers carry out the chemical or mechanical steps of production. For instance, they may chemically enhance metals or refine minerals for commercial purposes. In many cases, industrial workers use heavy machinery to help them produce materials on a very large scale.
Because most industrial processes generate so much heat, many manufacturers added asbestos as an insulating component to their products. When workers took power tools to these products (or disturbed them in any other way), they faced exposure hazards that placed them at risk for several serious diseases.
A 2015 study published in Occupational Environmental Medicine calculated the risk of asbestos-related cancer for different professions. The researchers estimated that industrial workers are over four times more likely to develop pleural mesothelioma than the general population.
Products and Locations
“Nearly every company that owned or maintained conventional industrial plants constructed or renovated prior to the 1970s” may have allowed asbestos products on their premises, according to experts at the Fourth National Forum for Asbestos Litigation. In some cases, these products were construction products such as floor or ceiling tiles. Many plants contained additional asbestos products, such as insulation for their equipment.
Hot engine heaters, autoclaves and gas valves often relied on asbestos to avoid overheating. Heated surfaces (like smelting furnaces) or metal structures also may have had a coat of spray-on insulation from brands like Monokote and Spraycraft. In some cases, asbestos boards covered workbenches where workers used heated tools.
Industrial worksites stocked products from asbestos manufacturers for their workers to use during their own operations. The EPA calls this “asbestos product fabrication.” For instance, industrial workers may have ripped through asbestos paper while creating gaskets or poured asbestos compounds while casting molds. Workers also used asbestos textiles (including rope lagging and braided packing) on a regular basis. Many manufacturers recommended products for use on high-speed rotary and reciprocating shafts, as well as any machinery that processed hot water and steam.
Other common industrial asbestos products included:
- Asbestos cement
- Pipe insulation
- Pipe wrappings
- Vinyl sheet backings
- Joint cements
- Caulking compounds
Laborers may also have worn asbestos-contaminated protective gear during certain tasks. One former welder recalled wearing gloves that had a “white, kind of wool-ish . . . material in there that appeared to be asbestos.” Co-workers also recalled using other protective products made with flame-retardant, asbestos-treated cotton.
Occupational exposure hazards developed when industrial workers used power or friction tools on asbestos-containing products. Scoring, drilling, grinding or otherwise cutting through those materials released the fibers into the air.
Responsibilities that may have created occupational exposure hazards include:
- Forging metals with heat and hammers
- Casting liquid materials
- Compression molding
- Extracting metals from ores
- Sandblasting (or otherwise polishing) surfaces before distribution
- Refining oils
- Smelting steel or copper in industrial furnaces
- Vacuum metalizing products as a finishing mechanism
- Soldering or welding metals together
- Stamping or mechanically cutting metals
For instance, when creating metal casts, workers would mix together an asbestos and gypsum slurry. They would then spray the slurry on the mold patterns. Once the molds were set, they would pry them out of the casts and bake them in an industrial oven. Then the workers would pour molten metal into the casts to form prototypes and production parts.
Most industrial plants had poor ventilation systems. Airborne fibers tended to circulate throughout the workspace for extended periods of time; this further increased the workers’ risks of occupational exposure.
Questions About Asbestos Exposure
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One large-scale study analyzed the risk of asbestos exposure for various occupational groups. Industrial insulators were the most heavily-exposed group, but welders, millwrights, sheet metal workers, laborers and maintenance workers also sustained significant levels of exposure. Researchers noted that asbestos concentrations in most jobsites began decreasing the mid-1970s, when many companies implemented new industrial hygiene practices.
In a National Cancer Institute-funded peritoneal mesothelioma study, researchers found a significant correlation between the disease and a history of industrial work. They found the most notable risk increases in industrial chemical workers, non-metallic mineral or stone workers and machinery workers.
Another study maintained that esophageal cancer was also a risk for asbestos-exposed welders and flame cutters. They concluded that the occupational chrysotile exposure that these workers often sustained correlated with a twofold increase in risk for squamous cell carcinoma.
In 1993, the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine conducted a study of the asbestos-related disease risks for millwrights and industrial machinery erectors. Visual abnormalities were prevalent on the chest X-rays. Slightly more than 44 percent of the 110 workers showed pleural abnormalities consistent with asbestos-induced complications. The X-rays indicated unilateral pleural thickening and interstitial lung disease for 18 and 13 of the workers, respectively.
Research firm RAND estimated that companies from 90 percent of the industrial occupations recognized by the U.S. Department of Commerce have been involved with asbestos lawsuits.
In one of these cases, a welder earned a $1.29 million verdict in a case against the Hobart Brothers Company, who manufactured asbestos-containing welding rods. For nearly 30 years, the man used these rods to weld electric arcs at a metal fabrication company. He died from asbestos-induced lung cancer a month after he was diagnosed with the disease. His family received the funds from his case.
A similar trial involved a former welder and sheet metal mechanic Donald Perman. For 12 years, Perman worked with various asbestos products at American Sheet Metal’s Tualatin, Oregon jobsite. He also wore asbestos-contaminated protective gear on the jobsite, which further contributed to his exposure. Perman passed away before his case went to trial, and although the circuit court ruled in his favor, they did not release the final verdict.
While most industrial workers seeking compensation have filed tort claims with a mesothelioma attorney, a handful of employees have pursued workers compensation instead. In one such case, a millwright named Thomas Baptiste testified that job-related responsibilities exposed him to asbestos. He specifically recalled that fumes and dusts contaminated his workspace when he repaired gear boxes and cranes, welded metals and assembled asbestos gaskets. After he retired, he was diagnosed with multiple respiratory diseases, including pneumoconiosis, lung cancer and asbestosis. An appeals court granted Baptiste his worker’s compensation claim.
Many industrial product manufacturers may have produced asbestos-containing products.
Some of notable companies involved with asbestos litigation include:
- Vulcan Iron Works, Inc.
- Eastern Refractories Company
- AK Steel Corporation
- Riley Stoker Corporation
- Sterling Fluid
- Afton Pumps
10 Cited Article Sources
The sources on all content featured in The Mesothelioma Center at Asbestos.com include medical and scientific studies, peer-reviewed studies and other research documents from reputable organizations.
- Gilham, C. et al. (2015, December 29). Pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer risks in relation to occupational history and asbestos lung burden. Retrieved from: https://oem.bmj.com/content/oemed/73/5/290.full.pdf
- Voorhees, T., & Hellermna, E. (28 February 28, 2003). Fourth National Forum: Asbestos Litigation. : Retrieved from: http://www.cov.com/files/Publication/9de0ea41-479d-4100-be34-a0a472c3aa1e/Presentation/PublicationAttachment/9d028b7b-9fef-45ef-afb4-a1e3bc39fbef/oid6374.PDF
- Quickparts. (2012). Prototype Metal Casting. Retrieved from: http://www.quickparts.com/LowVolumePrototypes/PrototypeMetalCasting.aspx
- Thomas Baptiste, Deceased, and Linda Baptiste, Petitioners, v. Workers Compensation Appeal Board. (29 July 2005). Retrieved from: http://statecasefiles.justia.com/documents/pennsylvania/commonwealth-court/17cd05_12-7-05.pdf
- Judy Perman v. C.H. Murphy/Clark-Ullman, Inc. (21 May 2008). Retrieved from: http://www.publications.ojd.state.or.us/docs/A126341.htm
- Campbell v. A.W. Chesterton; (9 April 2010). Retrieved from: http://www.brookmanrosenberg.com/files/2012/06/07-meso-verdict-1_293_800.pdf
- Parent, M. E., Siemiatycki, J., & Fritschi, L. (2000). Workplace exposures and oesophageal cancer. Occupational and Environmental Medicine; 57. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1739952/pdf/v057p00325.pdf
- Cocco, P., & Dosemeci, M. (1999). Peritoneal cancer and occupational exposure to asbestos: results from the application of a job-exposure matrix. American Journal of Industrial Medicine; 35 (1). Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9884740
- Fischbein, A., Luo, J.C., Lacher, M., Rosenfield, S., Rosenbaum, A., Miller, A., & Solomon, S. J. (1993). Respiratory findings among millwright and machinery erectors: Identification of health hazards from asbestos in place at work. Environmental Research; 61 (1). Retrieved from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/8472674
- Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2011, Production Occupations. (27 March 2012). Retrieved from: http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes510000.htm
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Last Modified January 20, 2020