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Union Carbide

  • Year Founded: 1917
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Union Carbide was established in 1917 as Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation. The ethylene producer and purchaser filed its first patent to prepare the chemical in 1919. In 1920, the company established Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corporation. Shortly after, the company opened the first commercial ethylene plant in Clendenin, West Virginia. This marked the beginning of the petrochemical industry.

Union Carbide Facts:
  • Founded: 1917
  • Years Operated: 1917-2001
  • Headquarters: Houston, Texas
  • Business: Manufactured chemicals including industrial gases, Calidria chrysotile asbestos and ethylene-based chemicals.
  • Asbestos Trust: No
  • Bankruptcy Status: Not bankrupt

The Clendenin commercial plant manufactured a variety of ethylene-based chemicals such as ethylene glycol, which was used for automotive antifreeze.

Between 1920 and 1957, Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation continued to grow. It merged with Bakelite Corporation and began a lucrative chemical production business in Texas. The company also purchased Plant Institute, which was a plant the company operated at the start of World War II for the U.S. government. The plant produced butadiene and styrene. In 1957, the company became Union Carbide Corporation and proceeded to grow and pursue various acquisitions and business opportunities.

Union Carbide became a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Dow Chemical Company (TDCC) on February 6, 2001 during a transaction valued at $11.6 billion.

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Litigation & Specific Lawsuits

Asbestos-related personal injury claims have been filed by individuals that were exposed to asbestos in Union Carbide plants from 1945 to 1980 and to the company’s products containing Calidria chrysotile asbestos from 1964 to 1972.

Union Carbide was ordered to pay millions of dollars in asbestos claims. Many have been settled but some remain unpaid. Because of the latency period of asbestos-related disease, many more will likely be filed in the future.

Unlike other companies that produce asbestos, Union Carbide has not set up a trust for claims or filed for bankruptcy. The companies have decided instead to continue to defend themselves in court against current and future claims.

On June 14, 2012 a jury in Los Angeles awarded $48 million dollars to a California plaintiff and his wife; $37.5 million of that verdict is to be paid by Union Carbide. The plaintiff worked with many of Union Carbide’s asbestos-containing products as a general contractor in the 1960s and ‘70s and was diagnosed with mesothelioma in 2011.

During the trial, one key piece of evidence was a 1967 Union Carbide internal memo that proved the company knew that asbestos exposure caused cancer. An attorney for Union Carbide claims the company, “clearly did not cause [the plaintiff’s] disease,” and “the verdict in this case is outrageous and unsupported by the facts.”

An attorney for Parex USA, Inc., another named defendant in the case, commented that the jury “was being ruled by passion and prejudice. There was little evidence that [the plaintiff’s] quality of life has been affected so far, other than the fact he knew he had cancer.”

Because asbestos-related disease does not develop for 20 to 50 years or more after exposure, the company will continue to receive lawsuit claims for injuries ranging from asbestosis to lung cancer and mesothelioma.

In its 2018 first quarter report filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, Union Carbide listed its asbestos-related liabilities as $1.369 billion through 2049. The report showed that 84 percent was related to future claims. That same report listed 15,427 unresolved claims.

The liabilities included legal defense and processing costs. The company reviews asbestos claims filed, settled and dismissed every quarter, according to the report.

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Industry & Occupations

Union Carbide has 2,400 employees in seven locations across the United States. Since Union Carbide’s acquisition by TDCC, Union Carbide sells most of the products it manufactures to TDCC. According to the official Union Carbide website, the company primarily produces chemicals and polymers that undergo one or more further conversions by customers before reaching consumers.

Union Carbide products were used in the following industries:

  • Agriculture
  • Automotive
  • Construction
  • Oil and Gas
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Textiles

The main asbestos product manufactured by Union Carbide is Calidria chrysotile asbestos. The company mined and milled Calidria near King City, California in the 1960s. Reportedly, its own scientists indicated that Calidria asbestos caused more damage to the lungs of rats than other types of asbestos.

Union Carbide officials knew that any health effects from asbestos would not surface for up to 50 years. In one internal memo, Union Carbide officials decided to “make hay while the sun shines” and seize the opportunity for profit before the public learned about the effects of this toxic product.


Union Carbide manufactured Calidria chrysotile asbestos. It sold this product to other companies who used it in products including cement, paint, sheet packing and household products.

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Writer and Editor

Matt Mauney is an award-winning journalist with more than a decade of professional writing and editing experience. He joined The Mesothelioma Center at Asbestos.com in 2016, and he spends much of his time reading, analyzing and reporting on mesothelioma research articles to ensure people in the mesothelioma community know the latest medical advances. Prior to joining Asbestos.com, Matt was a Community Manager at the Orlando Sentinel. Matt also edits pages, articles and other content on the website. He holds a certificate in health writing from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Walter Pacheco, Managing Editor at Asbestos.com
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7 Cited Article Sources

  1. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. (2018, March 31). Union Carbide Corporation. Retrieved from: http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=109589&p=irol-SECText&TEXT=aHR0cDovL2FwaS50ZW5rd2l6YXJkLmNvbS9maWxpbmcueG1sP2lwYWdlPTEyMjMwNTA1JkRTRVE9MCZTRVE9MCZTUURFU0M9U0VDVElPTl9FTlRJUkUmc3Vic2lkPTU3
  2. Bernstein, D. M., Chevalier, J. & Smith, P. (2005). Comparison of Calidria chrysotile asbestos to pure tremolite: final results of the inhalation biopersistence and histopathology examination following short-term exposure. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16020039
  3. Bronstad, A. (2012). $48M asbestos verdict is the largest this year. Retrieved from: http://www.dailyreportonline.com/PubArticleDRO.jsp?id=1202560877195&thepage=1
  4. Broughton, E. (2005). The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1142333/
  5. Girion, L. (2004). Case Hinges on material witness. Retrieved from: http://articles.latimes.com/2004/sep/26/business/fi-carbide26
  6. National Public Radio (NPR). (2006). Silicosis: From public menace to litigation target. Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5247882
  7. Union Carbide. (2012). History. Retrieved from: http://www.unioncarbide.com/history

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Last Modified February 12, 2019

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